Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Debate the influence of welfare state regimes on health inequalities Assignment

Discussion the impact of government assistance state systems on wellbeing disparities - Assignment Example investigations of exploration uncover that in the South European nations the family arranged government assistance frameworks are seen as not tending to appropriately sick wellbeing worries of the hindered gatherings. In any case, in Scandinavian nations there has been a more noteworthy dispersion of government assistance system helping the impeded however appropriate instructive mandates; relative hardship just as class designed wellbeing practices has enlarged the wellbeing imbalances in these nations (Eikemo et al, 2008, pp.578-579). Consequently it very well may be presumed that the government assistance systems are not suitable in their administrations to the populace in a productive way and the created landmass like Europe are likewise ensnared with arrangement of uncontrolled wellbeing disparities. This requires an unbending neutralizing measure (appropriate instruction, mindfulness, severe approaches, etc) and investigating the escape clauses as trading off wellbeing is bargaining national fortune. Eikemo et al, (2008), Health disparities as per instructive level in various government assistance systems: an examination of 23 European nations, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp. 565â€582, Sociology of Health and

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Changing trends in lifestyle free essay sample

Nowadays ways of life appear to change quick. It is something beyond dress and haircuts that are in style one year and outdated the following; it’s an entire method of living. One year individuals wear shades on their heads and wear pants and boots; they drink white wine and eat sushi at Japanese cafés; for practice they work a few miles every day. In any case, the following year they notice that everything has changed. Ladies wear long skirts; individuals drink costly water from France and eat pasta at Italian eateries; everybody is by all accounts practicing at fitness centers. Basically nothing in present day life gets away from the impact of style; food, music, work out, books, slang words, motion pictures, furniture, spots to visit, even names go all through design. It’s practically difficult to expound on explicit trends in light of the fact that these interests that individuals follow can change rapidly. In the United States, even individuals can be â€Å"in† or â€Å"out. We will compose a custom paper test on Changing patterns in way of life or on the other hand any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page † Like individuals in any nation, Americans appreciate following the lives of VIPs: celebrities, sports legends, renowned craftsmen, legislators, and such. However, Americans likewise give a great deal of consideration to individuals who have no uncommon capacity and have done nothing unique. In 1981, for instance, an obscure old lady showed up in a TV plug in which she took a gander at an extremely little burger and whined uproariously, â€Å"Where’s the beef?† These three words put her on the map. Unexpectedly she showed up in magazines and papers and on TV appears. She was promptly mainstream. She was â€Å"in.† In 1987 an exterminator in Dallas, Texas concluded that he would be extremely glad in the event that he could discover more clients for his private venture; he required more individuals to pay him to execute the bugs and rodents in their homes. He put an abnormal commercial in a Dallas paper: He offered to pay $1,000 to the individual who could locate the greatest cockroach. This abnormal offer made him out of nowhere renowned. In any case, this sort of notoriety doesn't keep going long. Such individuals are renowned for a brief timeframe. They are crazes. What makes such trends travel every which way? What's more, for what reason do such huge numbers of individuals tail them? Despite the fact that apparel planners and producers impact prevailing fashions in fashionâ because they need to make a benefit, this craving for cash doesn’t clarify trends in different territories, for example, language. For instance, why have adolescents in the previous a quarter century utilized †at various occasions †the slang words sweet, or amazing, in discussion rather than essentially saying awesome? As per Jack Santino, a specialist in mainstream society, individuals who follow crazes are not nonsensical; they basically need ot be a piece of something new and innovative, and they feel great when they are a piece of a â€Å"in-group.† Fads are not remarkable to the United States. Dr. Santino accepts that prevailing fashions are normal in any nation that has a solid purchaser economy, e.g., Britain, Japan, and Germany. In any case, in the United States there is an extra explanation behind crazes: Most Americans appear to feel that something isn't right if there isn’t visit change in their lives. Dr. Santino brings up that it’s once in a while hard to see the distinction between a prevailing fashion and a pattern. A prevailing fashion, he says, keeps going an exceptionally brief timeframe and isn't significant. A social pattern keeps going quite a while and turns into a genuine piece of present day culture. A pattern may be the utilization of PCs; a trend may be specific sorts of PC games. An ongoing pattern is the across the nation enthusiasm for good wellbeing, yet numerous prevailing fashions originate from this pattern: oxygen consuming moving, unique weight control plans, imported water, and such. An energizing pattern started in Europe in the mid-1990s: the social outskirts between nations started to separate. Explorers from different pieces of the world saw that â€Å"Eurokids,† from Lisbon to Stockholm, from London to Athens, appeared to be fundamentally the same as one another. All followed similar prevailing fashions in design, music, and food. These Eurokids had similar ways of life and qualities. For instance, they were stressed over nature, concerned more about downpour backwoods than garments. A portion of the Eurokids’ prevailing fashions will surely vanish and others will tag along, yet it will be intriguing to check whether the pattern proceeds and turns into a genuine piece of European culture.

Monday, August 10, 2020

Implicit Bias Causes, Effects, and Prevention

Implicit Bias Causes, Effects, and Prevention Theories Cognitive Psychology Print How Does Implicit Bias Influence Behavior? Explanations and Impacts of Unconscious Bias By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on February 08, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on February 09, 2020 LaylaBird / Getty Images More in Theories Cognitive Psychology Behavioral Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand Causes Implicit Attitude Test Discrimination Effects Reducing Bias View All Back To Top An implicit bias is an unconscious association, belief, or attitude toward any social group. Due to implicit biases, people may often attribute certain qualities or characteristics to all members of a particular group, a phenomenon known as stereotyping.?? It is important to remember that implicit biases operate almost entirely on an unconscious level. While explicit biases and prejudices are intentional and controllable, implicit biases are less so. A person may even express explicit disapproval of a certain attitude or belief while still harboring similar biases on a more unconscious level. Such biases do not necessarily align with our own sense of self and personal identity. In many cases, people can hold positive or negative associations with regards to their own race, gender, religion, or another personal characteristic. The Psychology Behind Peoples Prejudices Causes While people might like to believe that they are not susceptible to these biases and stereotypes, the reality is that everyone engages in them whether they like it or not. It does not mean that you are necessarily prejudiced or inclined to discriminate against other people, however. It simply means that your brain is working the way it should, taking in information to form associations and make generalizations. It is the natural tendency of the brain to sift, sort, and categorize information about the world that leads to the formation of these implicit biases. Were susceptible to the bias because of this. We tend to seek out patterns. Implicit bias occurs because of the brains natural tendency to look for patterns and associations in the world. Social cognition, or our ability to store, process, and apply information about people in social situations, is dependent on this ability to form associations about the world.We like to take shortcuts. Like other cognitive biases, the implicit bias is a result of the brains tendency to try to simplify the world. Because the brain is constantly inundated with more information than it could conceivably process, mental shortcuts make it faster and easier for the brain to sort through all of this data.Experience and social conditioning play a role. Implicit biases are influenced by experiences, although these attitudes may not be the result of direct personal experience. Cultural conditioning, media portrayals, and upbringing can all contribute to the implicit associations that people form about the members of other social groups. Implicit Attitude Test The term implicit bias was first coined by social psychologists Mahzarin Banaji and Tony Greenwald in 1995. In an influential paper introducing their theory of implicit social cognition, they proposed that social behavior was largely influenced by unconscious associations and judgments. In 1998, Banaji and Greenwald published their now famous Implicit Association Test to support their hypothesis. The test utilizes a computer program to show respondents a series of images and words to determine how long it takes someone to choose between two things. Subjects might be shown images of faces of different racial backgrounds, for example, in conjunction with either a positive word or a negative word. Subjects would then be asked to click on a positive word when they saw an image of someone from one race, and to click on a negative word when they saw someone of another race. The researchers suggest that when someone clicks quickly, it means that they possess a stronger unconscious association.?? If a person quickly clicks on a negative word every time they see a person of a particular race, the researchers suggest that this would indicate that they hold an implicit negative bias toward individuals of that race. In addition to a test of implicit racial attitudes, the IAT has also been utilized to measure unconscious biases related to gender, weight, sexuality, disability, and other areas.?? The IAT has grown in popularity and use over the last decade, yet has recently come under fire. Among the main criticisms are findings that the test results may lack reliability. Respondents may score high on racial bias on one test, and low the next time they are tested. Also of concern is that scores on the test may not necessarily correlate with individual behavior. People may score high for a type of bias on the IAT, but those results may not accurately predict how they would relate to members of a specific social group. Link With Discrimination It is important to understand that implicit bias is not the same thing as racism, although the two concepts are related. Overt racism involves conscious prejudice against members of a particular racial group and can be influenced by both explicit and implicit biases. Other forms of discrimination that can be affected by unconscious biases include ageism, sexism, homophobia, and ableism. One of the benefits of being aware of the potential impact of implicit social biases is that you can take a more active role in overcoming social stereotypes, discrimination, and prejudice. Effects Implicit biases can influence how you behave toward the members of other social groups. Researchers have found that such bias can have effects in a number of settings, including in school, work, and legal proceedings.?? Implicit Biases in School Implicit bias can lead to a phenomenon known as stereotype threat in which people internalize negative stereotypes about themselves based upon group associations. Research has shown, for example, that girls often internalize implicit attitudes related to gender and math performance.?? By the age of 9, girls have been shown to exhibit the unconscious beliefs that females have a preference for language over that of math.?? The stronger these implicit beliefs are, the less likely girls and women are to pursue math performance in school. Such unconscious beliefs are also believed to a play a role in inhibiting women from pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Studies have also demonstrated that implicit attitudes can also influence how teachers respond to student behavior, suggesting that implicit bias can have a powerful impact on educational access and academic achievement. One study, for example, found that black childrenâ€"and black boys in particularâ€"were more likely to be expelled from school for behavioral issues.?? When teachers were told to watch for challenging behaviors, they were more likely to focus on black children than on white children. Implicit Biases in the Workplace While the Implicit Attitude Test itself may possess problems, this does not negate the existence of implicit bias. Or the existence and effects of bias, prejudice, and discrimination in the real world. Such prejudices can have very real and potentially devastating consequences. One study, for example, found that when black and white job seekers sent out similar resumes to employers, black applicants were half as likely to be called in for interviews as white job seekers with equal qualifications.?? Such discrimination is likely the result of both explicit and implicit biases toward racial groups. Even when employers strive to eliminate potential bias in hiring, subtle implicit biases may still have an impact on how people are selected for jobs or promoted to advanced positions.?? Avoiding such biases entirely can be difficult, but being aware of their existence and striving to minimize them can help. Implicit Biases in Legal Settings Implicit biases can have troubling implications in legal proceedings. Research has found that there is an overwhelming racial disparity in how black defendants are treated in criminal sentencing.?? Not only are black defendants less likely to be offered plea bargains than white defendants charged with similar crimes, they are also more likely to receive longer and harsher sentences than white defendants. How to Reduce While implicit biases can have an impact on your behavior, there are things that you can do to reduce your own bias. Focus on seeing people as individuals. Rather than focusing on stereotypes to define people, spend time considering them on a more personal, individual level.Work on consciously changing your stereotypes. If you do recognize that your response to a person might be rooted in biases or stereotypes make an effort to consciously adjust your response.Adjust your perspective. Try seeing things from another persons point of view. How would you respond if you were in their same position? What factors might contribute to how a person acts in a particular setting or situation? A Word From Verywell Implicit biases can be troubling, but they are also a pervasive part of life. Such unconscious attitudes may not necessarily align with your declared beliefs. While people are more likely to hold implicit biases that favor their own ingroup, it is not uncommon for people to hold such biases against their own social group. The good news is that these implicit biases are not set in stone. Even if you do hold unconscious biases against other groups of people, it is possible to adopt new attitudes, even on the unconscious level.?? This process is not necessarily quick or easy, but being aware of the existence of these biases is a good place to start making a change. 10 Cognitive Biases That Distort Your Thinking

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Workplace Violence - 1735 Words

Workplace violence is present in every nook and cranny of corporate America, affecting millions of Americans every year. Workplace violence is defined by the Occupational Safety Health Administration, OSHA, as any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other threatening disruptive behavior that occurs at the work site. It ranges from threats and verbal abuse to physical assaults and even homicide. In 2011, there were over 2 two million reports and claims of workplace violence, with 458 being homicides1. Workplace violence is at the forefront of everyone’s mind when a breaking news story is broadcast on the evening news, such as the recent shootings in Santa Cruz, California by a disgruntled ex-cop, and the†¦show more content†¦According to Dr. Lynne McClure, an expert in managing high-risk employee behaviors before they escalate to workplace violence, there are always warning signs involving workplace violence2. She puts these eight warn ing signs in the following categories: †¢ Actor behaviors - employees act out their anger by yelling and shouting †¢ Fragmentor behaviors – employees take no responsibility for their actions and blames others for their mistakes †¢ Me-First behaviors – employees act selfishly without regard to fellow coworkers †¢ Mixed-Messenger behaviors – employees talk positively but behave negatively †¢ Wooden-Stick behaviors – employees are not receptive to change, and are inflexible and controlling †¢ Escape-Artist behaviors – employees compulsively lie and rely on negative stress relievers such as drugs and gambling †¢ Shocker behaviors – employees suddenly act in ways that are out of character †¢ Stranger behaviors – employees are remote and have poor social skills, and become fixated on an idea and/or an individual. There is no standard ‘profile’ of a person who commits workplace violence, and by no means is someone a threat just because they display one of these traits. Employees that exhibit many of these traits, and with increasing intensity, may be a danger and may need some help. Being able to identify these signs and warning signals, and reporting it to management timely can help prevent a workplace violence incident. HR’sShow MoreRelatedWorkplace Violence And The Workplace2844 Words   |  12 PagesWorkplace Violence statics across the United States of America have been on a steady rise each year since the early 1990’s. Reports have consistently shown in recent years that than an average of 500 homicides and 1.5 million assaults occur each year in America, in the workplace. With those types of statics on the rise in America it’s clear that a Workplace Violence Program is essential to the health, welfare, safety, and security of our employees in the workplace. When enacting a Workplace ViolenceRead MoreWorkplace Violence And The Workplace1145 Words   |  5 PagesWorkplace violence definition OSHA Fact Sheet (2012) states â€Å" workplace violence is a violence or the threat of violence against workers† (p.1). Workplace violence causes serious harm to employees or homicide that can lead to deaths. Act in any kind of shapes and forms such as: physical threat, threatening behavior, intention of assault and battery, verbal abuse, beating, stabbing, rape, shooting, being followed, psychological trauma, suicide, treat or obscene phone call/text, intimidation. WorkplaceRead MoreWorkplace Violence And The Workplace1396 Words   |  6 PagesWorkplace violence Workplace violence can be any act of physical violence, threats of physical violence, harassment, intimidation, or other threatening, disruptive behavior that occurs at the work site. Workplace violence can affect or involve employees, visitors, contractors, and other non-Federal employees. A number of different actions in the work environment can trigger or cause workplace violence. It may even be the result of non-work-related situations such as domestic violence or â€Å"road rageRead MoreWorkplace Violence In The Workplace1071 Words   |  5 Pages INTRODUCTION: Violence in the workplace has become a major safety and health issue. Workplace violence is not limited to homicide. This type of violence includes behaviors and circumstances that threaten an employee s physical safety; such as: verbal threats, sexual or physical harassment, coercion, behavior changes, intimidation, stalking, telephone/email harassment, and history of aggression. â€Å"Workplace violence incidents have tripled in the last decade, and it is now the fastest-growing categoryRead MoreWorkplace Violence10377 Words   |  42 PagesUNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones 5-1-2002 Workplace violence: A case study Robert F. White University of Nevada, Las Vegas Repository Citation White, Robert F., Workplace violence: A case study (2002). UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones. Paper 522. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/thesesdissertations/522 This Capstone is brought to you for free and open access by Digital Scholarship@UNLV. It has been accepted for inclusion in UNLV Theses/Read MoreWorkplace Violence And Its Effects On The Workplace834 Words   |  4 Pagesspecialists, medical attendants and assistants who manage psychiatric patients; individuals from crisis restorative reaction groups; and doctor s facility workers working in confirmations, crisis rooms, and emergency or intense consideration unit. This is violence committed by an aggressor who either gets administrations from or is under the custodial supervision of the influenced work environment or the casualty. The aggressors can be present or previous clients or customers, for example, travelers, patientsRead MoreWorkplace Violence2432 Words   |  10 PagesWORKPLACE VIOLENCE: A FORCE OF OVERALL CONCERN Adell Newman-Lee Criminology-CJ102-D04 December 3, 2003 THESIS: WORKPLACE AS IT RELATES TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE I INTRODUCTION: †¢ Crime and violence †¢ Workplace violence a major concern †¢ The three entities involved II STATISTICS †¢ The Bureau of Justice Statistics †¢ Statistics from 1992 to 1996 †¢ National Crime Victimization Survey and The Bureau of Labor Statistic III WORKPLACE VIOLENCE A LAW ENFORCEMENT ISSUE †¢ Responsibility of Law EnforcementRead More Workplace Violence Essay1030 Words   |  5 PagesWorkplace Violence Workplace violence is a phenomenon that is now widely recognized as a social problem, which impacts all organizations. According to Department of Justice statistics for 1995, 21% of all violent crime occurred while the victim was either at work or traveling to or from work. Workplace Violence accounted for more than two (2) million violent Crimes annually from 1992-1997 (Kaufer 1-2). In this research paper I will provide an overview of workplace violenceRead MoreEssay on Workplace Violence620 Words   |  3 PagesWorkplace Violence Workplace violence can be defined as any action that can threaten the safety of an employee, impact the employees psychological or physical well being, or cause damage to a companys property. Workplace violence is not often talked about, but it does kill people. In the last decade it has become one of the leading causes of deaths in the workplace. The UniversityRead MoreThe Effects Of Workplace Violence On The Workplace1235 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Violence in the workplace has been around for centuries. Everything from verbal abuse and harassments to physical abuse and murders have been known to happen in a business. During the 1980’s several violent attacks happened in the Postal Service, public awareness of workplace violence began in August of 1986 when a postal employee shot and killed fourteen people before killing himself. Prior to these killings, violence in the workplace was only referred to as getting injured on the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Castelia City Times Analysis - 1189 Words

Hello everyone, Today marks the beginning of a new series of articles I wish to work on, the Castelia City Times. Name is still pending but as of now, thats what Im sticking with. In essence, thisll be a (hopefully) weekly article dedicated to non-Pokemon stuff, be it movies, other games, music, or anything else I feel like sharing with the rest of the League. I was originally planning on starting this series strong with Spider-Man Homecoming and Transformers: The Last Knight reviews, but my laptop was sadly corrupted and I lost those, as well as my will to continue trying this series out up until this point. Hopefully, I can make it up to you this week with a music analysis on one of the greatest rap artists of this era, J-Cole. Now,†¦show more content†¦This leads to the chorus, which is him saying I aint ever did this before, no. He reveals to the listener that at this time, he is a virgin, leaving the listener in suspense as to what his response to the girl might be. This immediately leads us into the second verse, which is him lying to the girl, claiming he has had sex so as to not lose his opportunity. He also uses a brilliant line, But if I told the truth, I knew that Id get played out son/Havent been in pussy since the day I came out one, which is absolutely genius writing. He ends the verse lying once more, being invited to the girls house on Saturday to show his prowess in the sheets. Its at this point that the chorus plays once more, reminding us again that Cole is a virgin. This leads us into the third verse, which is the leadup, and presumably, the act of intercourse. The verse starts off with Cole freaking out and praying to God that he can satisfy this girl and not make a fool out of h imself. We are then taken to the bedroom, where Cole is just about to take out the condom before the girl tells him to be gentle cause, which immediately leads us back to the chorus. Its a classic misdirection, a double entendre where both teens are claiming experience when in reality, theyre

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Textbook Analysis Free Essays

string(73) " use the information that is already given, but using one’s own words\." University of Latvia Faculty of Humanities Department of English Studies Textbook Analysis 3rd year, group B student Kristaps Briedis Riga 2013 Introduction The â€Å"Focus on Advanced English C. A. E. We will write a custom essay sample on Textbook Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now † is written by Sue O’Connell and first published in Pearson Education Limited at the Edinburgh Gate, Harlow in year 1999, and the edition at hand is the thirteenth impression printed in 2006. The textbook is oriented for students preparing for the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English examination. Further, the analysis of syllabus will be based on the material given in the revised and updated edition of the â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † The whole text book consists of 240 pages. It includes fourteen units, which are divided according to different topics (e. g. Severe Weather, Time Eaters, Stress etc. ). Each unit of the â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † is devoted to the development of all language skills: reading, writing, listening, speaking. Moreover, there are grammar and vocabulary tasks in each unit. One unit from the â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † (Unit 12 â€Å"Living Dangerously†) was chosen for the analysis of the whole book, because each unit is devoted to the development of all language skills and thus, it is enough to analyze only one of them in order to understand how the whole book â€Å"works†. Reading Reading can be defined as the process of constructing meaning from written texts (Online 1). Thus, learning reading skills means understanding the text what one reads. But why do we need to understand what we read? According to Harmer (2001:200), there are two types of reasons for reading. The first is instrumental reason, which means that people read because it helps him/her to achieve particular goal (e. g. people read road signs in order to know where to go). The other type is called pleasurable. That means that the reason for reading some particular text is to get pleasure (e. g. reading illustrated cartoon). Thus, it does not matter what reason the student has, it is important for him/her to practice reading skills. Unit 12 of the â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † offers the students two reading exercises. The first text is the magazine article called â€Å"Living Dangerously. † It contains about 400 words and is divided into 8 paragraphs. There is a pre-reading exercise, which students should do before reading the main text. The pre-reading exercises motivate the students and encourage their involvement in the topic and theme of the text (Online 2). After doing a pre-reading and a while-reading activity, students are asked to fill the gaps in the article choosing the proper paragraph (from A-G) given after the text. In order to achieve a general understanding of a text, the students do extensive reading, which includes scanning (a quick reading, focusing on locating specific information) and skimming (a quick reading to know how the passage is organized and to get an idea of the intention of the writer) (Online 3). Finally, the post-reading exercise is given to check how the students have understood the text and to develop their critical thinking. In this exercise the students are asked to find given expressions in the text and work out the meaning of them from the context (e. g. ested interest might mean a personal stake or involvement in an undertaking or situation). As the second task, a newspapers article â€Å"You are caught in a fire then what? † is given. It is about two times longer than previous article (about 800 words). Firstly, students are asked to scan the text (to read it quickly) in order to be able to answer some questions in pre-reading activity (e. g. Who devised the Su rvival Game and why? ). Then, students should read the article more carefully in order to do the following post-reading exercise. This type of exercise is different from the first one. In the second case students have to answer multiple choice questions. There are 6 questions with 4 answers in each. Some advantages of this type of exercises are the following: multiple choice exercises require less time than some written tasks, it is considered to be more objective than a usual written task, and â€Å"it will allow assessing one’s knowledge without taking into account all the irrelevant factors† (Online 4). Writing Writing is said to be a method of representing language in visual or tactile form (Online 5). And more important it is a skill of marking coherent words on paper and composing text (Online 6). There are many reasons why writing is important, for example, the ability to express one’s thoughts and ideas, communicative competence (letters), also it serves as a record, as in expressing one’s ideas for future references (Online 6). There are different types of writing – writing to inform, educational writing, writing to entertain, persuasive writing and motivational writing (Online 7). To improve writing skills there are some essential instructions that need to be performed – research, think, organize, write, edit, revise, relax (Online 7). Two writing exercises are included into the unit 12 of the â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † The first exercise is writing an article (~250 words) about an interesting adventure. The textbook has a good approach to the writing tasks as it provides a ‘Task Checklist’, where there are several guideline questions concerning format and approach, content and organization, style and the target reader, for example, ‘Who are the magazine readers? ’ or ‘What language features are needed for this content? ’. Also the textbook provides a ‘Writing File’, where the features of different types of writing – formal and informal letters, articles, reports, reviews and so on – are shown. The second part of the exercise is the involvement of some structures in the article in order to emphasize or add some dramatic effect, for example, writing sentences using inversion (a reversal of normal word order) or cleft structure (A construction in which some element in a sentence is moved from its normal position into a separate clause to give it greater emphasis) (Online 8). The second exercise on writing consists of writing a memo (~50 words) and a report (~200 words) about the security in collage. The essential part in this task is to use the information that is already given, but using one’s own words. You read "Textbook Analysis" in category "Papers" The task also has a ‘Task Checklist’ with the guideline questions and indication to the ‘Writing File’ and also includes the explanation and tips on writing a memo. â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † aim is based on covering different types of writing. The Unit 12 included persuasive writing (writing a memo), which improves the skills of argumentation (Online 7), and informative writing (writing an article). The tasks are well organized and easy to understand, they provide comprehensible instructions and also some tips for writing the given type of the text. Additionally there is a supplement, where the features of the different types of texts are enclosed, so it is easy for a student to rapidly find the necessary information. Listening Listening is the ability to accurately receive messages in the communication process (Online 9). Listening is not an easy process because the listener should concentrate and understand everything what he/she hears on the spot. It is impossible for the listener to adjust the pace of speech, listen again or check an unknown word. In addition, listening is not the same as hearing as listening means paying attention to not only what is being told, but also to the manner how it is being told. According to the statistics, adults spend approximately 70% of time communicating, while approximately 45% of the time spent on communication is listening (Online 9). After a short explanation on what is listening and why it is so important in everyday communication, it is essential to look how listening is taught in schools. The textbook under analysis provides mostly two (in some units – one) listening tasks in each unit. According to Rost (2002), listening tasks can be divided into three phases: pre-listening, while-listening and post-listening. This division is not always present in the textbook because in quite many of the tasks pre-listening or post-listening is missing. Pre-listening and post-listening are very important because pre-listening is like a warm-up for while-reading as it ‘activates the background knowledge and  integrates  the directions of listening’ (Helgesen, 1998), while post-reading ‘allows the learner to build mental representations and develop shortterm second language memory, and increase motivation for listening a second time’ (Rost, 2002). The textbook presents such pre-reading tasks as questions on the theme and vocabulary related exercises. In Unit 12 two vocabulary related exercises are offered as lead-in tasks into the following istening tasks as well as into the whole unit and theme. All while-listening tasks are divided into four different types or parts (as they are called in the book). In parts 1 and 2 a monologue or sometimes a dialogue can be heard. The task type used in these parts is mostly filling in the gaps. The students are tested for ability of hearing specific information (or bot tom-up listening), which, according to Helgesen (1998), is similar to scanning. He writes that listening to specific information is difficult as students ‘try to catch everything, often taking the time to mentally translate it into their mother tongue’ (Helgesen, 1998). A longer recording of a discussion or conversation can be heard in the part 3. The student’s ability of understanding the text as a whole (or top-down listening), including the gist and specific information, is tested in this part. The task types are filling in the gaps, sentence completion and four-option multiple choice questions. In part 4 five short extracts can be heard. Students are asked to identify the situation or topic, the manner and the attitude of speaking, the goal of the speaker or specific information. The task types are multiple matching or three-option multiple choice questions. The while-listening texts are in the form of formal and informal conversations, public announcements and private messages. The while-listening tasks in Unit 12 are of parts 1 and 3. Both exercises are filling in the gaps, and the recording can be heard twice in each of them. The few post-reading tasks are mostly questions on the theme, for example, the task in Unit 12 asks to imagine yourself in the situation connected with the previously heard text and discuss what you would do yourself, which is quite creative and interesting post-reading exercise. Most of the tasks are one-way as ‘all input comes from an outside source (like a videotape) to the learner’ not from outside, for example, a speaking partner (Rost, 2002). In addition, the listening sub-skills, such as skimming, scanning, note-taking, understanding attitudinal and conceptual meanings, understanding unfamiliar lexical items through context, understanding relationships within the sentence, also are taught in the textbook (Online 10). Speaking Speaking is  the delivery of language through the mouth (Online 11). Speaking skills enable learners to enter the community of the target language (Kramina, 2000: 86). This vocalized form of language usually requires at least one listener (of course, some people talk to themselves! ) – speech can flow naturally from one person to another in the form of dialogue, or it can also be planned and rehearsed, as in the delivery of a speech or presentation (Online 11). According to Kramina (2000), to act as a speaker participating in the communicative process, the learner must be able to carry out a sequence of skilled actions which comprise: cognitive, linguistic, and phonetic skills. There are speaking tasks throughout the textbook under analysis that help practice and enhance those skills. There are four parts to the speaking tasks in â€Å"Advanced English C. A. E. † each focusing on different speaking skills and sub-skills. Part 1 focuses on general social language – general social English and the ability to interact with other people in English. Part 2 focuses on transactional language – ability to give information clearly. Part 3 practices negotiation and collaboration skills, and Part 4 is designed to test the ability to report, explain, summarise and to develop a discussion naturally. Pictures and other visual prompts are used in Parts 2 and 3 to cue various tasks. Unit 12 of the textbook under analysis includes four speaking tasks – three of them concerning Parts 3 and 4, and one on Part 2. According to Kramina (2000) the development of communicative ability requires a range of suitable classroom activities that should provide learners with a degree of communicative urgency so that they have something interesting to say and a reason to communicate with their partners. Learners may be motivated to communicate by the enjoyment of playing a game, the challenge and satisfaction in solving a problem or completing a project. Tasks 1 through 3 focus specifically on problem solving. In task 1 the learners are faced with an unfinished statement and five possible variants to conclude it: the learners are to engage in a discussion and give well-founded answers to the follow-up questions. The correct answers can then be found on the answer page of the book. Task 2 consists of parts a and b. Part a is a work in pairs, where each of the participants are to imagine themselves in a particular problematic/ difficult situation and have to come up with a sound solution, or choose one from the already given visual prompts. In part b, the participants have to briefly explain to the rest of the class the decisions they came to with their partners, and say how far they agree or disagree with the opinions of others. Task 3 is a discussion of points concerning the topic of the unit. Several questions are given, designed to encourage the learners to use their existing knowledge on the subject, brainstorm for new solutions and express personal opinions. Next to these three tasks, tips are given on how to develop the discussions further by listening and responding to what your partner says and allowing the partner to comment on what you say. The last speaking exercise of the unit concentrates on both presenting information clearly and listening carefully to the information given by a partner. Students have to work in pairs and each gets a picture to look at – the pictures are of the same scene but there are several differences between them. First, Student A is to describe the left-hand side of his picture in detail, while Student B listens carefully and notes any differences (without interrupting), and when A has finished, B should mentions any differences noticed. Then vice versa, Student B describes the right-hand side of the picture, while Student A studies for differences. When students are done with both parts of the task, they are to look at the two pictures together and compare their answers to the list given on a different page. This textbook is, however, lacking tasks that would help with the phonetic skills development, so it would be up to the teacher to help students learn the skills to articulate the utterance appropriately. (Kramina 2000: 65) Conclusions Although â€Å"Focus on Advanced English C. A. E. † is a textbook designed specifically as an integrated course for students preparing for the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English examination, it covers all the essential language skills for foreign language learning and is suitable for English language acquisition, and is generally a good material for the preparation of several other English examinations, e. g. , the English examination of Secondary education in Latvia. The textbook offers 14 units covering a wide variety of stimulating topics, authentic reading texts from a range of sources, thorough practice of all language skills, a Grammar File with detailed information of all points covered in the units, and a Writing File with model text types and useful language, all coming from the experienced teacher, teacher trainer and examiner Sue O’Connell. References 1. Harmer J. (2001) English Language teaching. England: Pearson Education Ltd. 2. Helgesen, M. 1998) ESL Magazine. 1 (4): 24-25. Available from http://www. mgu. ac. jp/~ic/helgesen/marc. article2. htm [Accessed March 5, 2013]. 3. Rost, M. (2002) Listening Tasks and Language Acquisition. Available from http://jalt-publications. org/archive/proceedings/2002/018. pdf [Accessed March 5, 2013]. 4. Kramina, I. (2000) Linguo-didactic Theories Underlying Multi-purpose Language Acquisition. Riga: University of Latvia. Online Sources 1. Available from http://lrs. ed. uiuc. edu/students/jblant on/read/readingdef. tm [Accessed March 6, 2013]. 2. Available from http://tlc. cet. ac. il/ShowItem. aspx? ItemID=ccd2b528-84f5-4078-a76f-d6b1243f26e9lang=EN [Accessed March 6, 2013]. 3. Available from http://fis. ucalgary. ca/Brian/611/readingtype. html [Accessed March 6, 2013]. 4. Available from http://www. multiplechoicequestionsservice. com/multiple-choice-questions-advantages/ [Accessed March 6, 2013]. 5. Available from: http://www. omniglot. com/writing/definition. htm [Accessed March 6, 2013]. How to cite Textbook Analysis, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Nothing Was Same by Drake free essay sample

Drakes new album â€Å"Nothing was the same† was released is the third studio album by Canadian recording artist Drake. The album was released on September 24, 2013, in North America by OVO Sound, Young Money Entertainment, Cash Money Records, and Republic Records. Aubrey Drake Graham (born October 24, 1986), is a Canadian recording artist, rapper, songwriter, and actor. He was born in Toronto, Ontario] He first garnered recognition for his role as Jimmy Brooks on the television series Degrassi: The Next Generation. Drake has sold over 5 million albums worldwide. His work has earned him a Grammy Award. In 2006 he dropped his mix tape â€Å"So Far Gone.† Which he actually published himself. Then in 2011 he dropped â€Å"thank me later.† Drake has really come into his own as a rapper. Even though you can tell he got a little bit of his sound from other artist that he himself is inspired by. Even when some of his songs are emotional but they have a meaning and reall y get to you. We will write a custom essay sample on Nothing Was Same by Drake or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Drake â€Å"nothing was the same† album was instantly a billboard hit. This album describes things most people don’t know about drake . he is becoming something big in the rap game and also as a singer . He is making money and doing big .Drake is going to come up big in life with his music .